RESEARCH UNIT 
Indira Gandhi National Open University Maidan Garhi, 
New Delhi-110 068 www.ignou.ac.in

Candidates are required to apply online only. The Online Link for PhD Entrance Portal is as under : 


Eligibility criteria for admission to Ph.D programme are as follows: 

Master's Degree from a University recognized by UGC in the relevant discipline with atleast 55% marks [50%marks in the case of SC,ST and OBC(Non-creamy Layer)/Differently-Abled and other categories of candidates as per the decision of UGC from time to time, or for those who had obtained their Master's Degree prior to19th September,1991] excluding grace marks.

GENERAL INFORMATION
  • Entrance Test is compulsory for all candidates applying for admission to Ph.D Programme.
  • Admission to the Ph.D Degree Programme is strictly on merit, based on the performance in the Entrance Test and Interview.
  • The syllabus of the Entrance Test shall be as per the ‘University Grants Commission (Minimum Standards and Procedures for Award of MPhil / PhD Degrees) Regulations, 2016 consisting of 50% of Research methodology and 50% subject specific.
  • The question paper shall have total 100 questions consisting of 50% on research methodology and 50% on specific subject. 
  • All the questions shall be Multiple Choice questions (MCQ) with 4 options and only one correct answer. There shall be no negative marking. 
  • The Entrance Test shall have a 70% weightage and 30% weightage shall be given to the interview/viva.  
  • IGNOU offers Ph.D programme under two categories: Part time and Full time. Both categories of students will be required to attend classes, if course work is allotted to them.

Important Dates 
 Last date for submission of online application - 23rd March, 2020 
 Entrance Test - 29th April, 2020 
 Declaration of Entrance Result – 8 th May, 2020


Syllabus for Entrance Test

PhD in Law (PHDLE) 

Part A- Research Methodology 

1. (a)Nature of Research 
 What is Research? 
 Relevance of Legal Research 
 Objective of Legal Research. 
 Need for Legal Research and Importance of inter-disciplinary approach. 
 Significance of Legal Research in India. 
 Legal Research as a profession in India. 

(b)Types of Research 
 Doctrinal or Traditional Research. 
 Non-doctrinal or Empirical Research. 
 Descriptive and Analytical Research. 
 Applied and Fundamental Research. 
 Qualitative and Quantitative Research. 
 Law Reform Research. 
 Historical Research. 
 Sociological Research. 

2.Research Processes 
 Identification of Research Problems. 
 Review of Literature. 
 Selection of a Research Problem 
 Formulation of a Hypothesis. 
 Research Design. 
 Hypothesis

3. Research Methods and tools for collection of data 

1) Primary Data method. 
 Experimental and Participatory/ Scientific Method. 
 Case Study Method. 
 Survey Method. 
 Discussion Method. 
 Observation Method. 
 Interview Method. 
 Mail Survey Method. 
 Questionnaire (Open ended and Close ended) 
 Pilot Study Method. 

2) Secondary Data Method. 
 Case Law Method. 
 Cumulative Record Cards.

3) Tabulation and Evaluation of Data. 

4. Sampling 
 Advantages and Limitations of Sampling. 
 Theoretical basis of Sampling o Probability and Non- probability Sampling 
 Classifications of sampling o Simple Random Sampling 
  • o Stratified Sampling 
  • o Cluster Sampling o Systematic Sampling 
  • o Non- random sampling 
  • o Purposive Sampling 
  • o Convenience Sampling 
  • o Judgment Sampling 
 Sampling and Non- sampling Error. 

5. Analysis and Interpretation of Data 
 Application of Content Analysis in Legal Research. 
 Analysis of aggregate Data. 
 Data Interpretation. 
 Legal input Analysis, the ideal and the practicable. 
 Data Processing- Summarizing of data, Codification and Tabulation. 
 Writing a Research Report- Types, Contents and steps involved in drafting of a Report. 

6. Scientific Tools in Research 
 Jurimetrics. 
 Use of SPSS and other packages in Legal research. 
 Avoiding/Detecting plagiarism. 
 Writing the research report/Bibliography/Presentation styles

7. Other Legal Research Strategies: 
 Legislative materials including subordinate legislation, notification and policy statements. 
 Decisional material including foreign decisions; methods of discovering the "rule of the case" - tracing the history of important cases and also to ensuring that the case had not been overruled. 
 Survey of juristic literature/ writings and its importance in selecting research problem. 
 Compilation of list of reports used or special studies conducted relevant to the problem. 
 Finding Material in a Law Library: Books, Journals, Law Reports and Digests of cases , Acts, Index to Periodicals. 
 Mode of Citation and Bibliography: Author- date System, Footnote and Endnote System, Citing for the First Time, Subsequent citing, List of Abbreviations Used in Citation, Bibliographical Entries, The Blue book - A Uniform System of Citation.

Part B – Law 

1. Constitutional Law of India 
 Preamble 
 Fundamental Rights and Duties. 
 Directive Principles of State Policy. 
 Judiciary.  Executive. 
 Union State Legislative Relations. 
 Emergency Provisions. 
 Amendment to the Constitution of India. 
 Writ Jurisdiction. 

2. Legal Theory 
 Nature and Source of Law. 
 Positivism, Natural Law Theory, Sociological Jurisprudence. 
 Theories of punishment. 
 Rights and Duties. 
 Concepts of Possession and Ownership. 
 Judicial Process and Social Transformation. 
 Judicial Activism. 
 Social Justice. 

3. Public International law
 Nature of International Law and its relationship with municipal law. 
 Sources of International law 
 Recognition of states and governments. 
 United Nations. 
 Settlement of International Disputes. 
 Human rights. 

4. Law of Contracts: General Principles 
 Essentials of a valid contract. 
 Offer, acceptance and consideration. 
 Capacity to Contract: Minor’s contract. 
 Elements vitiating contract: Mistake, fraud, misrepresentation, public policy, coercion, undue influence, frustration of contract. 
 Remedies for breach of contract: Damages

5. Law of Crimes: General Principles 
 Nature and Definition of Offence. 
 General Exceptions 
 Common Intention and Common Object. 
 Criminal Attempt, Conspiracy and Abetment. 
 Offences against Women and child 

6. Law of Torts 
 Foundation of Tortuous Liability. 
 General Defences to an action of Tort. 
 Vicarious Liability 
 Remoteness of Damages. 
 Negligence 
 Absolute and Strict Liability. 

7. Environmental law 

 Concept of Environment- Meaning of Environment and Environmental Pollution 
 Environment law for the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution in India : 
  • o The Water ( Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974; 
  • o The Air ( Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981; 
  • o Wildlife protection Act,1972 
  • o Environment protection Act, 1986. 

 International Development for protection of Environmental Pollution. 
 Remedies for Environmental Protection: Civil, Criminal and Constitutional. 
 Environmental impact assessment and control of Hazardous wastes.